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Gender Difference in the Prevalence of Insomnia: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies
Zeng,Liang Nan1,2,3,4,5; Zong,Qian Qian6; Yang,Yuan3,4,5; Zhang,Ling6; Xiang,Yi Fan7; Ng,Chee H.8; Chen,Li Gang1,2; Xiang,Yu Tao3,4
Source PublicationFrontiers in Psychiatry

Objective: Insomnia is a major health challenge in the general population, but the results of the gender differences in the epidemiology of insomnia have been mixed. This is a meta-analysis to examine the gender difference in the prevalence of insomnia among the general population. Methods:Two reviewers independently searched relevant publications in PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Web of Science from their inception to 16 April 2019. Studies that reported the gender-based prevalence of insomnia according to the international diagnostic criteria were included for analyses using the random-effects model. Results:Eventually 13 articles were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of insomnia in the general population was 22.0% [n = 22,980, 95% confidence interval (CI): 17.0–28.0%], and females had a significantly higher prevalence of insomnia compared with males (OR = 1.58, 95% CI: 1.35, 1.85, Z = 5.63, p < 0.0001). Subgroup analyses showed that greater gender difference was associated with the use of case-control study design and consecutive sampling method. Meta-regression analyses also revealed that higher proportion of females and better study quality were significantly associated with greater gender difference. Conclusions:This meta-analysis found that the prevalence of insomnia in females was significantly higher than males in the included studies. Due to the negative effects of insomnia on health, regular screening, and effective interventions should be implemented in the general population particularly for females.

KeywordGender Difference Insomnia Meta-analysis Observational Studies Prevalence
URLView the original
Indexed BySCIE ; SSCI
WOS Research AreaPsychiatry
WOS SubjectPsychiatry
WOS IDWOS:000595410800001
Scopus ID2-s2.0-85097281067
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Cited Times [WOS]:9   [WOS Record]     [Related Records in WOS]
Document TypeJournal article
CollectionUniversity of Macau
Corresponding AuthorChen,Li Gang; Xiang,Yu Tao
Affiliation1.Department of Neurosurgery,The Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University,Luzhou,China
2.Neurosurgery Clinical Medical Research Center of Sichuan Province,Academician (Expert) Workstation of Sichuan Province,Luzhou,China
3.Unit of Psychiatry,Faculty of Health Sciences,Institute of Translational Medicine,University of Macau,Macao
4.Center for Cognition and Brain Sciences,University of Macau,Macao
5.Institute of Advanced Studies in Humanities and Social Sciences,University of Macau,Macao
6.The National Clinical Research Center for Mental Disorders & Beijing Key Laboratory of Mental Disorders,Beijing Anding Hospital $and,Advanced Innovation Center for Human Brain Protection,Capital Medical University,Beijing,China
7.Pui Ching Middle School Macau,Macao
8.Department of Psychiatry,The Melbourne Clinic and St. Vincent's Hospital,University of Melbourne,Melbourne,Australia
First Author AffilicationFaculty of Health Sciences;  University of Macau
Corresponding Author AffilicationFaculty of Health Sciences;  University of Macau
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Zeng,Liang Nan,Zong,Qian Qian,Yang,Yuan,et al. Gender Difference in the Prevalence of Insomnia: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies[J]. Frontiers in Psychiatry,2020,11.
APA Zeng,Liang Nan,Zong,Qian Qian,Yang,Yuan,Zhang,Ling,Xiang,Yi Fan,Ng,Chee H.,Chen,Li Gang,&Xiang,Yu Tao.(2020).Gender Difference in the Prevalence of Insomnia: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies.Frontiers in Psychiatry,11.
MLA Zeng,Liang Nan,et al."Gender Difference in the Prevalence of Insomnia: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies".Frontiers in Psychiatry 11(2020).
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