Cross-cultural and gender associations with anxiety about electronic data hacking
Elhai,Jon D.1,2; Chai,Sangmi3; Amialchuk,Aliaksandr4; Hall,Brian J.5,6
Source PublicationComputers in Human Behavior
ABS Journal Level3

We investigated the impact of data hacking on clinical anxiety and worry. 389 American and 216 Korean college students were recruited, surveyed using the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) questionnaire, and adapted GAD-7 specifically assessing data hacking anxiety. Using confirmatory factor analysis with measurement invariance testing, Koreans scored higher on severity of hacking anxiety items, and differently on factor loadings. Controlling for other variables such as age and prior hacking victimization, cultural group status remained a robust predictor for hacking anxiety. Hacking anxiety in both cultural groups was higher in women than men. Results are placed into the context of theory on information privacy concerns and cross-cultural differences on such concerns.

KeywordAnxiety Cross-cultural Differences Human Sex Differences Information Technology Privacy Psychological Stress
URLView the original
Indexed BySSCI
WOS Research AreaPsychology
WOS SubjectPsychology, Multidisciplinary ; Psychology, Experimental
WOS IDWOS:000396949400019
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Cited Times [WOS]:9   [WOS Record]     [Related Records in WOS]
Document TypeJournal article
CollectionUniversity of Macau
Corresponding AuthorElhai,Jon D.
Affiliation1.Department of Psychology,University of Toledo,,Toledo,43606,United States
2.Department of Psychiatry,University of Toledo,,Toledo,43614,United States
3.School of Business,Ewha Woman's University,,Seoul,03760,South Korea
4.Department of Economics,University of Toledo,,Toledo,43606,United States
5.Department of Psychology,University of Macau,,Taipa,Macao
6.Department of Health,Behavior and Society,Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health,,Baltimore,21205,United States
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Elhai,Jon D.,Chai,Sangmi,Amialchuk,Aliaksandr,et al. Cross-cultural and gender associations with anxiety about electronic data hacking[J]. Computers in Human Behavior,2017,70:161-167.
APA Elhai,Jon D.,Chai,Sangmi,Amialchuk,Aliaksandr,&Hall,Brian J..(2017).Cross-cultural and gender associations with anxiety about electronic data hacking.Computers in Human Behavior,70,161-167.
MLA Elhai,Jon D.,et al."Cross-cultural and gender associations with anxiety about electronic data hacking".Computers in Human Behavior 70(2017):161-167.
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