Causes of wet acid deposition in Macau
Mok, K. M.; Hoi, K. I.; Yuen, K. -V.
Conference Name9th International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology
Source PublicationProceedings of the International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology
Conference DateSEP 01-03, 2005
Conference PlaceRhodes Isl, GREECE

Records of precipitation in Macau are collected from three local monitoring stations from 1993 to 2003. Chemical compositions of precipitation are analyzed to reveal the causes of wet deposition inMacau. The review of volume weighted annual pH values over this period shows that the entire area of Macau 2 is subjected to acidic precipitation. The concentrations of three ionic species H+, SO42- and NO3- are analyzed statistically and their distributions are found to have positive skewness and kurtosis. Lognormal cumulative distribution function fits each sample cumulative distribution function for each ionic species well implying that their temporal behaviours are governed according to the lognormal distribution. Nonetheless, the distribution of each ionic species exhibits spatial variability across the stations. Therefore, it is suspected that the sources of wet acid deposition indifferent parts of Macau are different and further correlation analysis on the values of pH, sulfate, and nitrate of the precipitation is carried out. Correlation analysis on the values of pH, sulphate and nitrate of the precipitation shows that the linear correlation between [H+] and [SO42-] is higher than the linear correlation between [H+] and [NO3-] at two of the monitoring stations. The result indicates that sulfur dioxide could be the main contributor of acid wet deposition in Macau as suggested by previous preliminary studies. In addition, the eleven-year averaged ratio of [SO42-]/[NO3-] at Ka-Ho being 5.06 reinforces this conclusion. However, differences in the linear correlation between [H+] & [SO42-] and [H+] & [NO3-] among the three monitoring stations are found. Therefore, it confirms the aforementioned suspicion, that the sources of wet acid deposition in different parts of Macau are different. The wet acid deposition in Macau is then believed to be controlled by local sources ofsulfuric acid, nitric acid and some other acids that are not accounted for in the present study. Finally, the ratios Of [SO42-] ON and [NO3-]/[NO2] are found to decrease generally with the rainfall volume at Ka-Ho and Talipa Grande. Hence, it is concluded that longer rainfall duration can help to reduce the acidity in rainwater.

KeywordWet Acid Deposition Spatial Variability Sulfer Dioxide Nitrogen Oxide Macau Acid Rain Hydrogen Ion Sulphate Nitrate Annual Ph Variation Correlation
Indexed BySCIE
WOS Research AreaEngineering ; Environmental Sciences & Ecology
WOS SubjectEngineering, Environmental ; Environmental Sciences
WOS IDWOS:000237755500102
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Cited Times [WOS]:0   [WOS Record]     [Related Records in WOS]
Document TypeConference paper
AffiliationUniv Macau, Fac Sci & Technol, Dept Civil & Environm Engn, Macao, Peoples R China
First Author AffilicationUniversity of Macau
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Mok, K. M.,Hoi, K. I.,Yuen, K. -V.. Causes of wet acid deposition in Macau[C]:UNIV AEGEAN, VOULGAROKTONOU 30, ATHENS 114 72, GREECE,2005.
APA Mok, K. M.,Hoi, K. I.,&Yuen, K. -V..(2005).Causes of wet acid deposition in Macau.Proceedings of the International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology.
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