A Regulation-Free Sub-0.5-V 16-/24-MHz Crystal Oscillator with 14.2-nJ Startup Energy and 31.8-μW Steady-State Power
Lei K.-M.1; Mak P.-I.1; Law M.-K.1; Martins R.P.1
2018-09-01
Source PublicationIEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
ISSN00189200
Volume53Issue:9Pages:2624-2635
Abstract

This paper reports a regulation-free sub-0.5-V crystal oscillator (XO). The XO specifically designed for Bluetooth low-energy (BLE) radios aims for direct-powering by the harvested energy. To secure its performance against process, voltage, and temperature (PVT) variations, while reducing its startup time and energy, we propose a dual-mode gm scheme and a scalable self-reference chirp injection (SSCI) technique. The former employs an inductive multistage gm to mitigate the crystal's stray capacitance during the startup, but a single-stage gm in the steady state to preserve the phase noise (PN). For the latter (SSCI), we generate a scalable chirping sequence to kick-start the XO, avoiding trimming of the auxiliary oscillator. The XO fabricated in 65-nm CMOS is measured with two common crystals (16/24 MHz) over a 0.3-to-0.5-V supply. At 24 MHz and 0.35 V, the startup time and energy of the XO are 400 μ s and 14.2 nJ, respectively, while showing a steady-state power of 31.8 μ W and a PN of -134 dBc/Hz at 1-kHz offset. The frequency stability is 14.1 ppm against temperature (-40 °C-90 °C) and 17.9 ppm against voltage (0.3-0.5 V), both conform to the BLE standard (±50 ppm) with adequate margin.

KeywordBluetooth Low-energy (Ble) Chirping Cmos Crystal Oscillator (Xo) Duty-cycling Energy Harvesting (Eh) Fast Startup Internet-of-things (Iot) Ultralow Power (Ulp) Ultralow Voltage (Ulv)
DOI10.1109/JSSC.2018.2849012
URLView the original
Indexed BySCIE
Language英语
WOS Research AreaEngineering
WOS SubjectEngineering, Electrical & Electronic
WOS IDWOS:000444279300017
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Citation statistics
Cited Times [WOS]:10   [WOS Record]     [Related Records in WOS]
Document TypeJournal article
CollectionDEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING
INSTITUTE OF MICROELECTRONICS
Corresponding AuthorMak P.-I.
Affiliation1.Universidade de Macau
2.Harvard University
First Author AffilicationUniversity of Macau
Corresponding Author AffilicationUniversity of Macau
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Lei K.-M.,Mak P.-I.,Law M.-K.,et al. A Regulation-Free Sub-0.5-V 16-/24-MHz Crystal Oscillator with 14.2-nJ Startup Energy and 31.8-μW Steady-State Power[J]. IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits,2018,53(9):2624-2635.
APA Lei K.-M.,Mak P.-I.,Law M.-K.,&Martins R.P..(2018).A Regulation-Free Sub-0.5-V 16-/24-MHz Crystal Oscillator with 14.2-nJ Startup Energy and 31.8-μW Steady-State Power.IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits,53(9),2624-2635.
MLA Lei K.-M.,et al."A Regulation-Free Sub-0.5-V 16-/24-MHz Crystal Oscillator with 14.2-nJ Startup Energy and 31.8-μW Steady-State Power".IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits 53.9(2018):2624-2635.
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