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Whole-genome cartography of estrogen receptor α binding sites
Lin C.-Y.4; Vega V.B.4; Thomsen J.S.4; Zhang T.4; Say L.K.4; Xie M.4; Kuo P.C.4; Lipovich L.4; Barnett D.H.3; Stossi F.3; Yeo A.2; George J.4; Kuznetsov V.A.4; Yew K.L.4; Tze H.C.4; Palanisamy N.4; Miller L.D.4; Cheung E.4; Katzenellenbogen B.S.3; Ruan Y.4; Bourque G.4; Wei C.-L.4; Liu E.T.4
2007-06-01
Source PublicationPLoS Genetics
ISSN15537390 15537404
Volume3Issue:6Pages:0867-0885
Abstract

Using a chromatin immunoprecipitation-paired end diTag cloning and sequencing strategy, we mapped estrogen receptor α (ERα) binding sites in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. We identified 1,234 high confidence binding clusters of which 94% are projected to be bona fide ERα binding regions. Only 5% of the mapped estrogen receptor binding sites are located within 5 kb upstream of the transcriptional start sites of adjacent genes, regions containing the proximal promoters, whereas vast majority of the sites are mapped to intronic or distal locations (>5 kb from 5′ and 3′ ends of adjacent transcript), suggesting transcriptional regulatory mechanisms over significant physical distances. Of all the identified sites, 71% harbored putative full estrogen response elements (EREs), 25% bore ERE half sites, and only 4% had no recognizable ERE sequences. Genes in the vicinity of ERα binding sites were enriched for regulation by estradiol in MCF-7 cells, and their expression profiles in patient samples segregate ERα-positive from ERα-negative breast tumors. The expression dynamics of the genes adjacent to ERα binding sites suggest a direct induction of gene expression through binding to ERE-like sequences, whereas transcriptional repression by ERα appears to be through indirect mechanisms. Our analysis also indicates a number of candidate transcription factor binding sites adjacent to occupied EREs at frequencies much greater than by chance, including the previously reported FOXA1 sites, and demonstrate the potential involvement of one such putative adjacent factor, Sp1, in the global regulation of ERα target genes. Unexpectedly, we found that only 22%-24% of the bona fide human ERα binding sites were overlapping conserved regions in whole genome vertebrate alignments, which suggest limited conservation of functional binding sites. Taken together, this genome-scale analysis suggests complex but definable rules governing ERα binding and gene regulation. © 2007 Lin et al.

DOI10.1371/journal.pgen.0030087
URLView the original
Indexed BySCI
WOS Research AreaGenetics & Heredity
WOS SubjectGenetics & Heredity
WOS IDWOS:000248349300003
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Cited Times [WOS]:326   [WOS Record]     [Related Records in WOS]
Document TypeJournal article
CollectionFaculty of Health Sciences
Affiliation1.Brigham Young University
2.Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine
3.University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
4.A-Star, Genome Institute of Singapore
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Lin C.-Y.,Vega V.B.,Thomsen J.S.,et al. Whole-genome cartography of estrogen receptor α binding sites[J]. PLoS Genetics,2007,3(6):0867-0885.
APA Lin C.-Y..,Vega V.B..,Thomsen J.S..,Zhang T..,Say L.K..,...&Liu E.T..(2007).Whole-genome cartography of estrogen receptor α binding sites.PLoS Genetics,3(6),0867-0885.
MLA Lin C.-Y.,et al."Whole-genome cartography of estrogen receptor α binding sites".PLoS Genetics 3.6(2007):0867-0885.
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